“American Gets 165 Years in Jail for Child Sex Abuse in Haiti.” Caribbean 360. 28 August 2013. Web. 15 April 2015.

Matthew Andrew Carter was sentenced to 165 years in prison on July 31, 2013 in Miami for child sex tourism offenses; he posed as an international humanitarian and “savior to vulnerable children in Haiti” for 15 years while operating the Morning Star Center, where he sexually and physically abused the children in his care and custody—more than 50 children. In a statement, the acting assistant attorney general said that this sentencing demonstrates “our commitment to bringing the weight of justice on anyone who seeks to exploit our most vulnerable citizens, wherever they reside.”


Cabezas, Amalia L. Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2009. Print.

This book explores the complexities of the sex tourism industries in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, particularly in the erotic relationships between the tourist and the “guide”. Cabezas works to complicate and redefine common understandings of “sex tourism” and “sex workers”, as well as understandings of informal economies.

Castro, Arachu, Miric, Marija, Perez, Eddy. Integración de la Atención Prenatal con los Procesos de Detección y Manejo Clínico del VIH y de la Sífilis en la República Dominicana. UNICEF: Santo Domingo (2011)

This publication by UNICEF in conjunction with various public health offices of the Dominican Republic presents a plan for the creation of new services for the detection of HIV and syphilis, especially in prenatal care. In the context of our timeline, this publication provides information about the key players in the push for progress in the detection and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. It also outlines some of the already existing strategies and public health infrastructure present in the Dominican Republic.

Children's Rights. 12th Session of the Working Group on the UPR Human Rights Council, October 3, 2011. http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/session12/HT/JS3-JointSubmission3-eng.pdf.

This article focuses on the inception of the Brigade for the Protection of Minors in 2003, which operates on the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. UNICEF also sponsored this Brigade for the Protection of Minors beginning in 2010.

"Colonial Zone Row Signals Shift toward Red Light District." Dominican Today. 21 June 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

This article describes Dominican authorities’ issuance of an increased number of permits to owners of nightclubs and bars in the Colonial Zone of Santo Domingo. Interior and Police Minister at the time Jose Ramon Fadul stated that these actions were done with community oversight and input, but Colonial City Neighborhood boards and local religious leaders have spoken out about the lack of community involvement and see it as a larger plan for development of certain Colonial City areas as red light districts.

"Declaración De La V Cumbre Puerto Plata 2014 Presente Y Futuro Del Destino." ADOMPRETUR, 14 June 2014. Web. http://www.discoverpuertoplata.com/index.phproute=product%2Fproduct&product_id=538.

La Quinta Cumbre Prensa y Turismo Puerto Plata met to discuss tourism renewal in Puerto Plata. They issued a declaration that includes two points relevant to this project: community development, empowerment, and education to combat and prevent prostitution from featuring in these plans. The plan’s two main aspects concerning this topic are the introduction of a more comprehensive education for the citizenry concerning prostitution through a partnership with the Ministry of Education; this would be provided in conjunction with education about public etiquette and green practices. The second aspect is educating young women in detecting and reporting prostitution.

Del Mundo, Serena. “Sex Trade Flourishes in Dominican Republic.” Cronkite Borderlands Initiative. Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication. Web. 15 April 2015.

This article examines the experiences of Odalis, a woman who has worked in the Dominican Republic’s sex trade for over 14 years. She shares stories of physical and sexual abuse, as well as her need to continue providing for her three children. The article looks at MODEMU as a resource and advocate for women like Odalis, exploring the background of Jacqueline Montero, president of MODEMU, and the difficulties the organization faces—namely, lack of resources.

Delva, Marlyn. "Risk and Protective Experiences of Haitians in the Dominican Republic: HIV Prevention, Transmission and Treatment." Order No. 3590102 Teachers College, Columbia University, 2013. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

Marlyn Delva attempts to analyze the nuances of HIV/AIDS risk within the large population of Haitian immigrants in the Dominican Republic. This statistical and scientific approach provides concrete data, which supports the conclusion that Haitian immigrants are indeed more likely to contract AIDS using their involvement in sex work as a key risk factor in the contraction of the disease. This study provides for our timeline a scientific conclusion linking Haiti to AIDS and even more importantly in the context of the Dominican Republic. It also ties in the concept of prostitution and sex work as a promoter of sexually transmitted diseases, a narrative which, as seen through other sources, has been present in the Dominican Republic since the early 20th century.

Desvarieux, Jessica. “In Postquake Haiti, an Influx of Dominican Prostitutes.” Time. Accessed April 15, 2015.

This article in the Times demonstrates the way transnational prostitution on the island of Hispaniola very much follows the flow of foreign money. After the earthquake, the article reports the influx of Dominican prostitutes who arrive in Haiti around the same time as the large numbers of aid workers.

Directiva De Asonahores. "Declaracion De Principios En Contra De La Explotacion Sexual De Los Menores De Edad En Republica Dominicana." (2013). Asonahores. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

This document, a code of conduct for members of the ANAHORES network, pledges the organization to actively fight and prevent the sexual exploitation of minors in order to promote a wholesome childhood or Dominican children. The pledge encompasses a number of measures that hotels in particular can implement to prevent the sexual exploitation of children by playing active preventative roles and by upholding professional standards.

"Dominican Hookers, Gays, Citizens Weigh in on Bill to Create Red Light District." Dominican Today. 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.  

During a Chamber of Deputies’ public hearing in November 2011, various gender and women’s rights groups, including the United Women’s Movement and members of the Transvestites, Transsexuals, and Transgender communities, spoke up about the drafted bill that would establish red light districts and declared it a violation of their rights. They stated that this kind of regulation would further marginalize sex workers, implying that actions had to be taken to offer better wage jobs to sex workers.

DR Nights Adult Vacations. DRNights.com. Website. 15 April 2015.

This website advertises “adult vacations” in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic catered toward single men and couples. The company specializes in delivering “custom sex vacation packages” and features photos and descriptions of Dominican women under the “Our Girls” tab as well as photos of the resort, private villas, rates and packages, and testimonials from past customers.

Efe. "Unicef Firma Acuerdo Con R.Dominicana Para Prevenir Explotación Sexual Niños." Acento. Editora Acento SAS, 25 July 2014. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.  

On July 24, 2014 the Specialized Force for Tourism Security (Cestur) of the Dominican Republic and Unicef signed an agreement to prevent the sexual exploitation of boys, girls, and adolescents in the tourism industry. This agreement includes plans to modify the police curriculum in order to equip them with better ways of reaching out to underage sex workers, as well as education for hotel and tourism establishment personnel.

Farmer, Paul. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame, Updated with a New Preface. University of California Press, 2006.

Paul Farmer’s book probes the association of Haiti and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s to try to understand the true origins of the virus, but also to purge Haiti of its unmerited guilt. We will be using Paul Farmer’s historical delineation of the ups-and-downs of sex tourism in the 20th century in Haiti. Beginning in the 1970s, Paul Farmer argues that tourism in the country bounces back especially with the opening of the famous Club Méditérannée in 1980, the epitome of the modern-day all inclusive resort. But, only a decade later, Haiti’s tourist industry was completely demolished. In fact, by 1981, Haiti had officially been blamed for “starting the AIDS epidemic” by the Center for Disease Control in the United States. As expected, this pejorative tag that had been laid on Haiti in the 1980s severely affected and still affects the sex tourism industry in the country.

François, Kawas. “La Grogne S’amplifie Contre La MINUSTAH. (French).” Relations (00343781), no. 768 (October 2013): 5–6.

This article examines MINUSTAH (United Nations Stabilizing Mission in Haiti), which was originally created on April 30th 2004 after the attempted coup against Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Kawas François describes the harmful effects that the mission has infused in Haiti such as cholera, or the numerous sexual scandals.

“Haiti.” International Planned Parenthood Federation. Accessed April 3, 2015.

This article by the International Planned Parenthood Federation examines the Haitian branch of Profamilia, Profamil. It was established in 1986, under the regime of Henri Namphy.

"Haiti." Representing Children Worldwide. Yale Law School, 2005. http://www.law.yale.edu/rcw/rcw/jurisdictions/caribbean/haiti/frontpage.htm.

Haiti endorsed the CRC (Constitution on the Rights of the Child) in 1995. In article 34, child prostitution was officially outlawed.  

"Haiti Country Profile." JHPIEGO. Jhpiego in Haiti, n.d. http://www.jhpiego.org.

JHPIEGO is a non-profit health provider in Haiti established by the Johns Hopkins Program for Internationl Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics. They began their mission in Haiti in 1997 under President René Préval.

“Haiti - Health : Family Planning Program, a National Priority - HaitiLibre.com : Haiti News 7/7.” HaitiLibre.com. Accessed April 9, 2015.

This article by Haiti Libre examines the new “national priority” of family planning, which has been publicly shown by first lady Sophia Martelly as she inaugurated a Profamil (NGO) clinic in Cayes-Jacmel.

“Haitian Children Sold as Cheap Labourers and Prostitutes for Little More Than £50.” The Guardian. 22 September 2005. Web. 15 April 2015.

This article explores the “thriving trade” of Haitian children in the Dominican Republic, particularly in Dajabón, a Dominican town on the Haitian border. While the boys are generally used for manual labor (particularly agriculture or construction), the girls often are sold into prostitution. The article explores the complex dynamics between the two countries as well as the contradiction between law and enforcement in the Dominican Republic—though there is a law against trafficking, this law is rarely enforced and the occurrence of trafficking is often denied by authorities.

"Historia." Profamilia. Profamilia. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

Profamilia is an NGO founded on March 14, 1966 in the Dominican Republic to provide resources pertaining to sexual and reproductive health in the country. It began as a resource to promote Planned Parenthood, a right to education, and access to contraceptives for women. It later began to conduct research on the link between population growth and the lack of contraceptives and sexual education in vulnerable communities. It offers various programs, among them clinics across the country to provide low-cost services to women and outreach programs to underserved communities. 

"Historia." Republica Dominicana: Procuraduria General De La Republica. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

This is the official website of the equivalent of the Attorney General’s Office. This office, whose head is part of the Supreme Court of Justice in the Dominican Republic but appointed by the Executive branch, was established in 1844 and serves as the legal branch of the government and formulates and implements laws against criminality, carries out penal investigations, administers the penitentiary and correctional system, among other roles. This office encompasses various legal entities, including el Ministerio Publico in the Dominican Republic. An important aspect of this office, relevant to this research project, is the office’s role in legal matters pertaining to violence against citizens.

“History”. GHESKIO. GHESKIO, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2015

The self-written history of the Haitian Study Group on Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) provides an overview of the group’s work in Haiti since its founding in the year 1982, a formation spurred by the AIDS epidemic. The narrative goes further, showing how over the past three decades the work of GHESKIO has expanded to the treatment of tuberculosis, cholera and other health concerns of the nation. GHESKIO’s history shows how comprehensive the roles of NGO’s have become in Haiti’s public health sphere, leading us to question why these organizations have taken upon themselves a semi-governmental role when, in contrast, the Dominican government has taken numerous initiatives to improve the health of the public.


Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. "Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Dominican Republic - Chapter IX - XI." Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Organization of American States, 07 Oct. 1999. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.  

This report by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights has three relevant chapters to this research project (Chapters IX, X, and XI). Chapter IX details the situation of Haitian migrant workers in the Dominican Republic, and there is a section that specifically addresses the situation of Haitian women in the bateyes (towns where sugar workers live in the Dominican Republic) and the sexual exploitation associated with their lack of legal representation and thus state protection. Chapter X focuses on the situation of Dominican women in the Dominican Republic and there is a particular section that addresses violence associated with prostitution and sex trafficking. Chapter XI focuses on the situation of minors in the Dominican Republic, with a section focusing on the exploitation of children in sex work.

Kay, Jennifer. "Matthew Andrew Carter Convicted of Sexually Abusing Haitian Children; To Be Sentenced in Miami." Huffington Post. 28 February 2013. Web. 15 April 2015.

Matthew Andrew Carter was convicted of “five counts of traveling from Florida for the purpose of engaging in sexual activity with minors, along with one count of attempting child sex tourism.” Former residents of the Morning Star Center, run by Carter, testified that they had been sexually abused by Carter as children; Carter had used his position of power to force the children in his care to perform sexual acts in exchange for food, clothes, and a place to sleep. Carter testified that, over the past decade, the Haitian national police had investigated multiple complaints of sexual misconduct at the Center, but Haitian authorities never charged Carter with any crime, nor did they shut down the Center.

Kempadoo, Kamala. Sexing the Caribbean : Gender, Race, and Sexual Labor. London: Routledge, 2004.

Kamala Kempadoo provides an abstract overview of the sexualization of the Caribbean as a whole, and the way foreign racialized and gendered perceptions of different islands inform the sex tourism industry. Although a little too theoretical to use on the timeline, Kamala Kempadoo provides us with a solid understanding and framing of the pull that draws mainly European and North American sex tourists to the Caribbean. One of the main arguments that she makes throughout her book is the perception that Caribbean “sexuality then is [seen as] not normal, but excessive, at times pathological and at others unruly, and it is characteristic of the people and its region that shapes images, policies and economic programs from without, as well as internal ideas about self, culture, and development.” (Kempadoo, 9)

Koenig, Serena, et al. "Successes and Challenges of HIV Treatment Programs in Haiti: Aftermath of the Earthquake." HIV Therapy 4.2 (2010): 145-60. ProQuest. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

This study by Serena Koenig, et al. explores the progress HIV Treatment (frequently referred to as AIDS related treatment or “ART”) programs in Haiti in the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake.  Several groups of focus are the NGOs Partners in Health (PIH) and Haitian Study Group on Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) and their plans for ART in Haiti. This article provides our timeline with an in-depth look into two important players in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Haiti as well as reveals the international importance of the issue. Additionally, it shows the impact of the 2010 earthquake has changed the context in which the international community views the social programs active in Haiti.

"Historique." KOFAVIV. Komisyon Fanm Viktim Pou Viktim, n.d. http://www.kofaviv.org

KOFAVIV is an organization invested in the well-being for rape and sexual assault victims. According to the website, the organization emerged May 8th, 2004. This organization also emerged after the attempted coup of Jean-Baptiste Aristide on April 30th.


Ley 137-03 Trafico de Migrantes

Law 137-03 concerns the illicit trafficking of migrants and the treatment of persons. Within it, however, is Decree 97-99, which created the Inter-institutional Committee for the Protection of the Migrant Woman (CIPROM) in 1996 and which is related to the topic of this research project. CIPROM aims to inform Dominican women about migration to different countries to combat exploitation of Dominican women abroad. This committee and its work would be interesting to analyze under the lens of migration of Dominicans into Haiti for sex work.  

Lord, Rebecca. “Quarantine in the Fort Ozama Dungeon: The Control of Prostitution and Venereal Disease in the Dominican Republic.” Colonialism and Health in the Tropics. Vol. 49, No.4. University of the West Indies Caribbean Quarterly: 2003.

Rebecca Lord focuses on a short lived but nonetheless telling episode in the history of health and sanitation legislation in the Dominican Republic when the United States military government instated a quarantine of prostitutes within Fort Ozama, a quarantine which later extended into Santo Domingo, to prevent the spread of syphilis which was quickly infecting the American troops. This event in once again portrays the strong link made by both American and Dominican government officials between prostitution and the spread of venereal disease. Legislation and initiatives of this kind were the staple of venereal disease prevention throughout the US occupation and well into the Trujillato.


Madera, Melissa. “’Never Forget Syphilis’: Public Health, Modernity and Gender in the Discourse of Prevision Social during the Trujillato.” Dominican Studies Institute Research Monograph (2008)

In this special publication by the CUNY Dominican Studies Institute, Madera explores the idea of motherhood during the Trujillato, specifically as it ties to gender and public health during a time when venereal disease, specifically syphilis, went largely unchecked in the Dominican Republic. This text functions in our timeline as a source of essential information linking sex workers to the spread of venereal disease and how the Trujillo regime highlighted regulation of prostitution as the only surefire way to combat communicable venereal disease.


Madera, Melissa. ""Zones of Scandal": Gender, Public Health, and Social Hygiene in the Dominican Republic, 1916--1961." Order No. 3491435 State University of New York at Binghamton, 2011. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

Melissa Madera takes on an evaluation of the relation between gender and public health legislation and opinion in this comprehensive dissertation. She finds numerous points of conflict starting with the U.S. occupation and going through to the end of the Trujillato in which women and, most controversially, prostitutes were the focus of public health concern, especially in relation to venereal disease. Madera’s dissertation provides our timeline with a insightful look into the health legislation that emerged during a tumultuous era in the Dominican Republic and draws connections between the programs created by the U.S. military government and the later laws of Trujillo.

Manley, Elizabeth S. "Poner Un Grano De Arena: Gender and Women's Political Participation Under Authoritarian Rule in the Dominican Republic, 1928--1978." Order No. 3310072 Tulane University, 2008. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

Elizabeth Manley studies the political participation of women during the time period of 1928-1978, which reveals the strong interest of women’s groups in the fight for public health and sanitation laws. Manley also focuses on the major role of the Secretariat of Public Health in the perpetuation of the U.S. occupational government and Trujillo’s linkage between prostitution and venereal disease and the continuation of these policies into the 1970’s. This dissertation shows how lasting the anti-prostitution public health policies were in the Dominican Republic and also highlights a different facet of the issue: the role that women played in the public health arena.

Minyety, Esther M., Juan J.M. Cisneros, and Eugenio M. Mendez. "Proyecto De Ley Mediante El Cual Se Establecen Zonas De Tolerancia En La Republica Dominicana." (n.d.): n. pag. Acento. Camara De Diputados De La Republica Dominicana, 7 June 2011. Web. http://acento.com.do/wp-content/uploads/ZonaRosa.pdf.

This is the bill presented to the Chamber of Deputies in an initiative to establish red light districts in city centers in the Dominican Republic. Sex workers would be restricted to operating in these areas or face fines. They would have to carry a health clearance card issued by the Ministry of Public Health and would face more government oversight relating to their health and hygiene. The bill was drafted by Procudaruria de la Republica Dominicana deputy Esther Minyeti.

Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud. La Historia de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana en Republica Dominicana. PAHO: 2002.

La Historia de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana en Republica Dominicana presents the involvement of the Pan American Health Organization in the public health policy of the Dominican Republic. This includes more general legislation regarding sanitation, but also more specific programs such as those to control the AIDS epidemic. This history provides our timeline with a valuable look into the extent of the involvement of international groups in the health legislation in the Dominican Republic and the services they were able to provide through immunization initiatives and collaboration with Dominican officials.

"Policía Turística: Historia." Politur. 2009. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

The Tourism Police was established on June 17, 1975 in the Dominican Republic as a branch of the National Police. Its aim is to guarantee the safety of citizens in the Dominican tourism sector through preventative, protective, and directional measures with local and foreign tourists. The tourism police is significant to this project as it is this entity that often engages with sex workers in major city centers in the country.    

Polyne, Millery. From Douglass to Duvalier. University Press of Florida, 2010.

This book by Millery Polyne has provided us with an understanding of the relationship between prominent Black Americans and Haitians. For the purposes of our timeline, we focused on the relationship between Walter White, and the Estimé and Magloire regimes. Between 1947 and 1955, Walter White, NAACP executive, drove a lot of the tourism initiatives for Haiti in the U.S with the help of the media, and the Haiti Tourism Information Bureau.


"¿Qué Es ASONAHORES?" ASONAHORES. ASONAHORES, 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

ASONAHORES stands for Asociacion de Hoteles y Turismo de la Republica Dominicana, which assumes a leadership role in the private tourism sector. It was formed on June 8, 1962. It aims to unite the hotel, restaurant, and national tourism industries to promote sustainable development of the hospitality industry in the Dominican Republic.

Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti : Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, c2001.

Mary Renda’s historical account of the before, during, and after of the U.S occupation in Haiti offers us a glimpse into the power dynamics of the interactions between Haitian civilians, and U.S Marines. We will be using Mary Renda’s examination of the U.S occupation of Haiti as a way to understand the beginnings of the modern sex tourism industry in Hispaniola. As she notes in her section entitled, “the Aftermath”, the emergence of “American money and men” (Renda, 215)  on Haitian soil expanded and concretized what would become the phenomenon of sex tourism decades later. It is under the U.S occupation that we first find a type of sexual exchange supported and encouraged by the sharp inequalities.

Réseau Continentale d’Echange d’Informations Relatives À L’entraide Judiciaire En Matière Pénale et d’Extradition, n.d. http://www.oas.org/juridico/mla/fr/hti/fr_hti_penal.html

This article provides the Haitian penal code, which outlaws child prostitution in article 282.

Reyes, Gerardo and Portal, Pedro. “Sex Tourism Thrives on Dominican Streets with Haitian Girls.” McClatchy DC. Miami Herald. 24 October, 2010. Web. 15 April 2015.

This article describes the thriving sex tourism industry in Boca Chica, Dominican Republic in which many Haitian girls under the age of 18 have begun to participate and dominate following the earthquake. The dynamics described here highlight a trend of homeless and/or orphaned Haitian girls moving to the Dominican Republic to sell sex to tourists. The article describes two contradictory portrayals of local police—one tourism police spokesman says that officers are taking “preventative measures” against the practice, but the article goes on to describe a scene in which reporters and tourists watch a police officer engaging with “a teenage prostitute.”


Robinson, Victor. “Did Columbus Discover Syphilis?” British Journal of Dermatology (November 1938): 593-605.

In this article, Robinson tests a hypothesis that had been developing since the 1500’s: Was Columbus’ voyage to Hispaniola, namely Haiti, the source of syphilis in Europe? He explores 16th century texts such as Tractado contra el mal serpentino, one of the first that places this blame on Haiti. In our timeline this source ties together the more recent accusation that Haiti was the cause of the spread of HIV/AIDS to North America, one of the infamous four H’s (Haitians, Hemophiliacs, Homosexuals, and Heroine Addicts), to colonial times. It also reveals an important factor through what is left out: there are no mentions of the Dominican Republic in relation to the disease, leaving us to ponder why that is.

"Sanctioned 'Red Light Districts' may be coming to Dominican Republic."Hispanically Speaking News. Hispanically Speaking News, 16 June 2011. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.  

This article describes some government initiative to establish red light districts in city centers in the Dominican Republic. Sex workers would be restricted to operating in these areas or face fines. They would have to carry a health clearance card issued by the Ministry of Public Health and would face more government oversight relating to their health and hygiene. The bill was drafted by Procudaduria de la Republica Dominicana deputy Esther Minyeti.


Sengupta, Somini. “United Nations Workers Accused of Sexual Abuse.” The New York Times. 16 March 2015. Web. 15 April 2015.

United Nations personnel—primarily peacekeepers—were accused of almost 80 cases of rape, sexual assault, and sex trafficking in 2014. 51 of these allegations were reported in peacekeeping missions, the majority of which came from missions in Haiti, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan. These reports included 13 allegations of sex with minors. As United Nations workers, the accused would have used their position of power and authority to sexually exploit people in Haiti.

“Sex Tourism / Romance Tourism.” Boca Chica Beach. BocaChicaBeach.net. Web. 15 April 2015.

This travel/tourism guide for Boca Chica Beach is the first result for the Google search “Boca Chica Beach, Dominican Republic” and contains an extensive guide of beaches, hotels, transportation, dining, maps, discounts, and sex. The “Sex Tourism” section offers definitions of sex, romance, and resort tourism, explores ideas about exploitation, and gives advice regarding payment, where to find sex workers, and how to stay safe. The site identifies Boca Chica as the “SEXIEST DESTINATION in all of the Caribbean” and attributes the attractiveness of the Dominican people to their exotic aesthetic as well as their sexual passion and insatiability.


Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Haiti, State against Nation : The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1990.

Michel-Rolph Trouillot’s book on Haiti begins during the colonial era, and ends during the 1987 interim government of Henri Namphy. He pays particular attention to the divide between state and nation, and delves into the way the Duvalier regime came into existence. We will be using Trouillot’s work to understand François Duvalier’s ambivalence towards tourism and a foreign presence in the country. Although, tourism was halted at his induction in 1957, he slowly became more interested in encouraging it--particularly from Americans. In fact, by the late 1960s, François Duvalier had made public attempts in support of international travel to Haiti. The best illustration of this was through his 1969 speech given in honor of Nelson Rockefeller’s arrival to Port-au-Prince, where he declares, “Haiti could be a land of great relaxation for the American middle-class--it is close, beautiful, and politically stable.”

"UNICEF Y CESTUR Firman Acuerdo Para Prevenir La Explotación Sexual De Niños, Niñas Y Adolescentes." UNICEF. UNICEF America Latina Y El Caribe, 24 July 2014. Web. http://www.unicef.org/lac/media_27642.htm.

On July 24, 2014 the Specialized Force for Tourism Security (Cestur) of the Dominican Republic and Unicef signed an agreement to prevent the sexual exploitation of boys, girls, and adolescents in the tourism industry. This agreement includes plans to modify the police curriculum in order to equip them with better ways of reaching out to underage sex workers, as well as education for hotel and tourism establishment personnel.